คอการเมือง:รวมคำศัพท์เกี่ยวกับการเลือกตั้ง

วันนี้ครูขอนำเสนอคำศัพท์สำหรับคอการเมืองเกี่ยวกับการเลือกตั้งนะครับ หลายคนอาจจะมองว่าเป็นเรื่องล้าหลังเพราะประเทศไทยเลือกตั้งไปแล้ว แต่สิ่งสำคัญคือคำศัพท์เหล่านี้จะพบในข้อสอบประเภท Reading ครับ ใครมีคลังคำมากกว่า ย่อมได้เปรียบในสนามสอบ เนื้อหามีทั้ง VDO ให้ฝึกฟังด้วยนะครับ พร้อมแล้ว Let’s go!

Video: The Thai election explained

ชม VDO    คลิกที่นี่ 

A Dummy’s Guide To Thailand’s General Election 2011

Thailand goes to the polls on Sunday, July 3rd. Five hundred members of parliament will be elected to the House of Representatives for a four-year term. It will be Thailand’s 26th general election since 1933 and the first since 2007.

Ballot papers allow the electorate to vote for 375 constituency MPs on a first past the post basis and 125 party-listMPs.

The number of party-list seats allocated to each is calculated by dividing the total number of votes cast across the country by 125.

The resulting figure is the number of votes it takes to win a seat which is then used to calculate how many seats each party wins. Forty-two parties will field at least one candidate in the election.

The Democrats, founded in 1946, are the oldest party led by Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva. They have 2.8 million paid-up members which is more that the rest of the other party memberships combined.

Phuye Thai party, founded in 2007 and with Yingluck Shinawatra as prime ministerial candidate, have 23,778 members.

At the last general election, 74.45 percent  of those eligible – about 32 million people – voted. It was the highest everturnout.

Members of the Sangha, prisoners and those judged to be of unsound mind are not allowed to vote.

Candidates for the House of Representatives must be citizens of Thailand by birth and be at least 25 years old on election day. A candidate must have been a voter and therefore on the electoral register for at least five years prior to the election. Chart Thai Pattana Puea Pandin party hopeful Paradon Srichaphan falied to meet this qualification and was not allowed to stand.

Party list candidates are exempt from provincial restrictions that apply to consitutency candidates. A candidate must be a member of one political party for at least 90 days before election day.

Fifty-seven female MPs, or around 12 percent of the House, were elected in 2007.

Each candidate is allowed to spend up to 1.5 million baht on their election campaign.

Campaigning for this election has been marred by violence. Police put a list of 113 known hitmen on a wanted list ahead of the election.

In the 2007 general election, Phue Thai forerunner, the People’s Power Party won 233 seats, mainly in the North and Northeast. The Democrats won 165 seats, mostly in the South and Central regions, including 30 out of 33 in Bangkok. Other parties won 82 of the 480  seats contested.

This time around, a party needs more than 250 seats to win a majority and form a government. Small- and medium-sized parties are expected to perform a vital role in helping Phue Thai or the Democrats to form a coalition government.

But what parties might work together?

The Democrats and Phue Thai will definitely not put their differences aside to form a coalition, but the Democrats could team up with Bhumjaithai, Chart Thai Pattana, Chart Pattana Puea Pandin, Pracharaj, Social Action party, Mataphum and Palangchon.

Phue Thai could work with Chart Thai Pattana, Chart Pattana Puea Pandin, Pracharaj and Social Action, but are unlikely to join forces with Bhumjaithai or Mataphum.

So, barring landslide victory for either of the two main parties, it looks certain that Prime Minister Abhisit will retainhis role or that Khun Yingluck will become Thailand’s first female prime minister depending on their ability to work with other parties to form a coaltion government.

dummy – a stupid person คนโง่
guide – a book, magazine, etc. that gives you information, help or instructions about something คู่มือ
go to the polls – to go to the polling station to vote ไปลงคะแนน, ไปเลือกตั้ง, ไปออกเสียงเลือกตั้ง
term – a period of time a politician or other official holds their job ช่วงเวลาการดำรงตำแหน่ง
ballot paper – the piece of paper on which someone marks who they are voting for บัตรเลือกตั้ง
electorate – all the people in a country or area who are allowed to vote ผู้ที่มีสิทธิเลือกตั้งทั้งหมดในท้องที่หรือเขตหนึ่งๆ
constituency – a district that elects its own representative to parliament เขตเลือกตั้ง
first past the post – of an election where the winner is the person who receives the most votes, even if they receive less than half of the votes
party-list (proportional representation) – a system that gives each party in an election a number of seats in relation to the number of votes its candidates receive ระบบสัดส่วน, ระบบปาร์ตี้ลิสต์
allocate – to officially give out an amount of or share of something แบ่งส่วน
calculate – to discover a number or amount using  mathematics คำนวน
cast (a ballot) – to vote, i.e., to put a marked ballot in a ballot box ลงคะแนน, หย่อนบัตรเลือกตั้ง, ออกเสียงเลือกตั้ง
figure – a number representing a particular amount, especially one given in official information ตัวเลข, จำนวนเลข
field – to provide a candidate to represent you in an election ส่งคนลงสมัคร
candidate – a person who is trying to be elected ผู้สมัครรับเลือกตั้ง
found – to start an organization, company, political party etc  สร้าง,  ก่อตั้ง, สถาปนา
combined – counted together รวมกัน
eligible (voters) – people who have the right to vote in an election ผู้มีสิทธิ์เลือกตั้ง
turnout – the number or percentage of eligible voters who vote in an election จำนวนผู้ออกมาลงคะแนน
(of) unsound mind – not responsible for your actions because of a mental illness วิกลจริต, จิตวิปลาส
citizen – someone who has the right to live permanently in a particular country พลเมือง
register – an official list of names of people who are allowed to do something, e.g., vote, study, stay in a hotel etc ทะเบียน
prior – before ก่อนหน้า
hopeful – a person who wants to succeed at something ผู้ที่ต้องการประสบความสำเร็จ
qualifications – the abilities, qualities, degrees, etc. that you need for a particular job or activity คุณสมบัติ, คุณวุฒิ
stand (for election) – to be a candidate in an election เป็นผู้สมัครรับเลือกตั้ง
restriction – a rule, action or situation that limits or controls someone or something การจำกัด, การควบคุม
exempt – not affected by something ได้รับการยกเว้น
female – being a woman or a girl สตรี, ผู้หญิง, เพศหญิ
campaign – a planned series of activities designed to persuade voters to vote for a particular candidate or political party การรณรงค์หาสียง
mar – to spoil something ทำให้เสียหาย
violence – physical force with the deliberate intention of causing damage to property or injury or death to people ความรุนแรง
hitman – a person who is paid to kill someone
forerunner – an institution, custom, or thing that existed before a newer but similar thing ผู้บุกเบิก, ผู้นำทาง
contest – to take part in an election or other competition ลงแข่ง, ลงรับเลือกตั้ง
violence – physical force with the deliberate intention of causing damage to property or injury or death to people ความรุนแรง
medium – in the middle between two sizes, amounts, lengths, temperatures, etc; not large, not small ปานกลาง, ขนาดกลาง
vital – extremely important; necessary for the success or continued existence of something จำเป็นสำหรับชีวิต; สำคัญมาก
role – the position or purpose that someone or something has in a situation, organisation, society or relationship บทบาท
coalition government – a government formed by two or more political parties working together รัฐบาลผสม
barring – except for ยกเว้น
landslide – of an election in which one person or party gets very many more votes than the other people or parties ชนะอย่างท่วมท้น, ฟ้าถล่มดินทลาย
retain – to keep, continue to have, or to store something เก็บไว้, สงวนไว้
Credit : http://www.bangkokpost.com/learning/learning-from-news/242339/video-the-thai-election-explained


คำศัพท์เกี่ยวกับการเลือกตั้ง(เพิ่มเติม)
election (n) the process of choosing a person or a group of person for a position, especially by voting  elect (v) electoral (adj) synonym: the polls การเลือกตั้ง
electioneering (n) – the activity of making speeches and visiting people to try to persuade them to vote for a particular politician or political party กิจกรรมหาเสียงของพรรคการเมือง
eligible voters – people who have the right to vote in an election ผู้มีสิทธิ์เลือกตั้ง
polling station – the place where people vote in an election หน่วยเลือกตั้ง
go to the polls – to go to the polling station to vote ไปลงคะแนน, ไปเลือกตั้ง, ไปออกเสียงเลือกตั้ง
ballot – the piece of paper on which someone marks who they are voting for บัตรเลือกตั้ง
ballot box – the containing into which voters put a marked ballot หีบบัตรเลือกตั้ง
cast a ballot – to vote, i.e., to put a marked ballot in a ballot box ลงคะแนน, หย่อนบัตรเลือกตั้ง, ออกเสียงเลือกตั้ง
candidate – a person who is trying to be elected ผู้สมัครรับเลือกตั้ง
race – a situation in which a number of people, groups, organizations, etc. are competing, especially for political power  การแข่งขัน, การหาเสียง
run for election – to compete for an elected position ลงสมัครรับเลือกตั้ง
vying (from the verb vie) – to compete strongly with someone ลงแข่งขัน, ลงชิง(เก้าอี้สส.)
constituency – a district that elects its own representative to parliament เขตเลือกตั้ง
proportional representation (party list) system – a system that gives each party in an election a number of seats in relation to the number of votes its candidates receive ระบบสัดส่วน, ระบบปาร์ตี้ลิสต์
up for grabs – available to be won มีให้ชิงชัยกัน
political party – a political organisation that you can vote for in elections and whose members have the same aims and ideas พรรคการเมือง
garner – to obtain; to get ได้รับ, รวบรวมได้
merger – the act of joining two or more organisations or businesses into one การรวมเข้าด้วยกัน
veteran – a person who has a lot of experience in a particular area or activity (สส.)หน้าเก่า, (สส.)หลายสมัย, ผู้อาวุโส, ทหารผ่านศึก
defect – to leave one political party to join another ออกจากพรรค
contest – to take part in an election or other competition ลงแข่ง, ลงรับเลือกตั้ง
bastionstronghold – an area where there is a lot of support for a political party  ฐานเสียง, ฐานที่มั่น, ขุมกำลัง
field – to provide a candidate to represent you in an election ส่งคนลงสมัคร
campaign – to take part in a planned series of activities (a campaign) designed to persuade voters to vote for a particular candidate or political party รณรงค์หาเสียง
woo – to try to get the support of someone หาเสียง, ขอคะแนน
policy – a set of plans or action agreed on by a government, political party, business, or other group นโยบาย
platform; manifesto – the aims of a political party and the things they say they will do if they win an election นโยบาย
pledge – to make a serious promise สัญญา
constituent – a person who lives, and can vote in a constituency ผู้มีสิทธิ์ลงคะแนน, ผู้มีสิทธิ์เลือกตั้ง
vow – to make a formal and serious promise to do something สาบาน, ปฏิญาณ
grassroots – involving the ordinary people rather than their leaders ในระดับรากหญ้า, ชาวบ้าน
populist – related to the type of politics that claims to represent the opinions and wishes of ordinary people or to support programmes that will benefit the ordinary people ประชานิยม
allowance – an amount of money that someone receives in order to pay for the things that they need  เงินสนับสนุน
rural – connected with the countryside outside big towns and cities  ในชนบท, บ้านนอก
urban – connected with towns and cities ในเมือง
canvasser – person whose job is to try and get support for a candidate or political party in a particular area หัวคะแนน
mobilise – organising a group of people to do something เกณฑ์, รวบรวม, ระดมกำลัง
rally – a large public meeting held to support a particular candidate or political party การชุมนุม, ประชุม
rival – competing; opposing คู่แข่ง
front-runner – the leader in an election or a competition ผู้ที่มีคะแนนนำ
underdog – a political party, person or group that seems unlikely to win an election or other competition พรรค/คน/ทีมที่เป็นรอง, เบี้ยล่าง, รองบ่อน
upset victory – an unexpected win over an opponent thought to be stronger ชนะโดยไม่คาดฝัน, พลิกล็อก
neck and neck – involved in a very close election or competition คู่คี่, สูสี
turnout – the number or percentage of eligible voters who vote in an election จำนวนผู้ออกมาลงคะแนน
returns – the results of an election ผลการเลือกตั้ง
outcome – the results of an election ผลการเลือกตั้ง
absolute majority – more than half the total number ข้างมาก, ส่วนใหญ่
Election Commission – the independent government agency in charge of calling elections, setting the election rules and ensuring that the election is free and fair คณะกรรมการเลือกตั้ง
election fraud – the crime of cheating in an election การโกงการเลือกตั้ง
issue – to officially announce or give out  ออก, แจกจ่าย,  ออกคำสั่ง
yellow card – a situation where there is evidence that a candidate has acted improperly and a by-election must be called. The yellow-carded candidate is allow to compete in the by-election.
red card – a situation where the Election Commission has determined a candidate has cheated in the election and is not allowed to compete in the by-election.
by-election – an election held to fill an empty seat in parliament  การเลือกตั้งซ่อม
coalition – a government formed by two or more political parties working together รัฐบาลหลายพรรค
choice – of very good quality หัวกะทิ, ชั้นหนึ่ง, ดีที่สุด
cabinet – the group of government ministers who make or approve government policies คณะรัฐมนตรี
faction – a small group of people within a large one ก๊ก, มุ้ง, ฝ่าย
allotted – given as a share of what is available แบ่งส่วน, จัดสรร, กำหนดให้
withdraw – to take away; to stop taking part in something ถอนตัว
constitution – the set of laws and basic principles that a country in governed by รัฐธรรมนูญ
opposition party –a political party that is not part of the government or a group which is against the government พรรคฝ่ายค้าน
censure – to formally criticise a cabinet minister in a parliamentary session after which members vote to support or reject the ลงมติไม่ไว้วางใจ
Credit:http://www.bangkokpost.com/learning/vocabulary/236991/election-basics

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